Visible Learning

Visible Learning

Visible Learning is a term introduced by John Hattie, Professor of Education and Director of the Melbourne Education Research Institute at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Hattie undertook the largest ever meta-analysis of quantitative measures of the effect of different factors on educational outcomes. His book, Visible Learning, is the result of this study.

Wikipedia, John Hattie. Retrieved from:

According to Hattie’s findings Visible Learning occurs when teachers see learning through the eyes of students and help them become their own teachers. Hattie found that the ten most effective influences relating to student achievement are:

  1. Student self-reporting grades
  2.  Formative evaluation
  3. Teacher clarity
  4. Reciprocal teaching
  5. Feedback
  6. Teacher-student relationships
  7. Meta-cognitive strategies
  8. Self-verbalisation/ questioning
  9. Teacher professional development
  10. Problem-solving teaching

One of the largest effects we have on the learner is in Formative Assessment;

  • What is the goal?                                                         Feed-up
  • Where is the learner in relation to the goal?                 Feed-back
  • What can the learner do to close the gap?                   Feed-forward

And the largest effect the learner has on their learning is to ask themselves the same questions, through Self-Assessment.

“The big idea is – know thy impact! Expert teachers are not wedded to specific teaching strategies – rather, they regularly focus on evaluating the effects they have on students, and adjust teaching methods accordingly.” – John Hattie


By having empathy and understanding how my learner is learning will help me improve myself as an educator. By using assessment tools, and then utilizing the information found as feedback will be a resource to make improvements. By implementing Hatti’s 10 most effective influences relating to student achievement list, I can increase engagement, motivation and improve the learners level of learning and thinking.


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