Group Instruction Feedback Technique
Group Instruction Feedback Technique
Just like surfing a website for information – a lecture should be resourceful, engaging, outcome based, and or a guide to other resourceful information. I started to think about this…a lectures purpose is similar to a websites purpose…both provide information! I was searching on Stephen Brooksfield’s website for information about lecturing creatively. I appreciated how Stephen Brookfield had various resources such as videos, podcasts, PowerPoint presentations, visuals, writing, workshop material and much more. What a creative website, useful, resourceful, engaging and for some reason I am intrigued to go back to it to find answers. This is exactly how a lecture should be. Not the stereotypical – a lecture eroded from the 80’s – plane mundane mono toned professor with a structured lecture that only is probably only geared to engage a few learners.
I am sure no professor, presenter or lecturer’s intentions is to provide information for learning in the most boring way. We also aren’t born with a natural talent to be charismatic, and able to engage everyone when we open our mouth to speak. Therefore, lecturing or presenting, to entice your audience, the learner, is a skill learned.
Education isn’t just about conveying information as efficiently as possible. A lecture, done right, gets to the heart of why a lesson is worth learning.
By Richard Gunderman, MD, PhD
From Chapter six – The Skillful Teacher- on Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom by Stephen D. Brookfield;
Characteristics of Helpful Lectures
A list of teaching and communication approaches that could be used to be creative during a lecture;
Here are our top 20 Tips for New Lecturers
The role of a lecturer is critical in keeping students engaged and actively listening to the topic in hand. Preparing for your first lectures can be a daunting process, but the following tips are designed to give you all the information, tools and advice that you need to get started.
1: Engage from the beginning
As a new lecturer, the first five minutes of your lecture provides a golden opportunity to get your students to sit up and pay attention. Start with the obvious – introduce yourself, explain your objectives for the lecture and outline learning outcomes. If you begin with passion and enthusiasm then your students are more likely to engage from the outset.
2: Spark Curiosity
Your introduction needs to engage, excite, challenge and create expectations, so add in interesting or little-known facts to spark curiosity from the very beginning. Scanning the room after the first five minutes will give you a good indication of how engaged your students appear to be.
3: Consider your framework
When preparing the framework of your lecture, consider the sequencing of your material and make sure that it’s presented in a clear and logical manner. The pace should be well controlled so that you are able to move through the material keeping students engaged throughout.
4: Organisation is everything
One of the crucial elements to a successful lecture is the planning process. You need to be fully confident about the content, structure and delivery of the material before you begin, so organisation is a key part of successful lecturing.
5: Use visual aids to maintain interest
Lecture content has been revolutionised with the rising age of technology. With visual aids, lecture material can be broken up with visual stimulation such as educational videos, which are particularly effective in conveying information in a powerful manner, Keynote or Powerpoint.
6: Avoid jargon
There’s nothing more likely to disengage your audience then endless jargon and abbreviations. If you are lecturing on a specialist subject, don’t assume that your students will understand jargon from the outset – making your lecture accessible and clearly understood is critical.
7: Work on your presentation style
Good lecturing is a process of continuous improvement, so always strive for best practice with your presentation style. You can be animated without being theatrical – after all, you are not putting on a show – but you need to keep your students’ attention. Avoid fidgeting and keep body language strong and confident.
8: Passion and enthusiasm goes a long way
Don’t be afraid to show your genuine passion and enthusiasm for your subject. Conveying lecture material in an enthused and passionate manner will instantly attract attention and will help students to focus and endorse your point of view.
9: Watch your tone of voice
Make sure that you vary the intonation of your voice when presenting lectures. Use humour and conversational tone to help maintain attention. It can help to record your voice before your first lecture or ask friends and family for feedback.
10: Pace the lecture well
Try to pause at regular intervals to ensure that your students are still engaged and attentive. Ask questions to see if they are keeping up with the pace; this will help you to organise future lectures effectively.
11: Include rarely-obtained information
As an authoritarian on your specialist subject, there’s no better way to impress students than to come up with new facts or information that your students can’t easily get access to. This will spark their curiosity and maintain interest.
12: Test engagement half way through
Keep the lecture interactive with a break half way through in which you can ask questions, ask students to tackle a problem or create a think-tank process.
13: Record your lectures
It might feel a little uncomfortable at first, especially as a new lecturer, but by filming your lectures and watching them back you can learn volumes about your presentation style, content, delivery, tone of voice and also monitor the engagement of your audience.
14: Strive to remember names
This may be a challenge, but remembering your students’ names will help to build relationships when asking questions or engaging in interactive sessions.
15: Feedback and evaluation
Proactively seek opportunities for feedback at the end of sessions – this is one of the greatest ways to learn and improve for the future.
16: Respect your students’ learning style
Your group of students will learn differently, so listen to their feedback and respect their varied learning styles. Some will prefer a more interactive approach, while others will respond best to visual aids such as educational videos or images. Place your students’ learning needs at the heart of your future frameworks.
17: Achieve a polished finish
Achieving a structured finish is a key part of a successful lecture. Bring the material back to the original questions posed at the beginning, refocus attention and confirm what you will be covering in the next lecture.
18: Choose a compelling exit question
In the same way that you need to start the lecture by sparking curiosity, finish with a compelling exit question that furthers students’ learning and introduces a new perspective. If your students leave the room actively engaged, then you’ve succeeded.
19: Strive for continuous improvement
Lecturers should be continuous learners; strive for improvement, ask for advice and be excited by the opportunity to learn something new about successful lecturing.
20: Comment on successful engagement
As a new lecturer, take every opportunity to praise your students. If your students are clearly engaging with your material then acknowledge this and show your appreciation. Positive feedback is a key aspect of building good relationships with your student audience.
Retrieved from https://academicladder.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/09/boringlecturemindmap2
Each Province in Canada have their own quality assurance system, there is not one governing body for all post-secondary education schools that evaluate or grant accreditation.
The following are the type of post-secondary schools in BC;
Public Institutions in BC
Private Institutions in the BC Transfer System
Out-of-Province Institutions in the BC Transfer System
Other Private Institution
Indigenous Adult and Higher Learning Association (IAHLA) Institutes
Each province or territory in Canada has developed its own quality assurance mechanisms to ensure the legitimacy of institutions, public and private. In BC, acts of the provincial legislature establish and govern public institutions and the Degree Quality Assessment Board (DQAB) approves individual degree programs for both public and private institutions. The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer relies on these quality assurance mechanisms as a basis on which to grant membership to the BC Transfer System but is not, itself, charged with responsibility for quality assessment or recognition of institutions or programs.
Canada does not have a national or regional accreditation system for post-secondary institutions and therefore educational jurisdictions, except in some limited circumstances, do not normally employ the term “accredited” to denote provincially authorized or recognized institutions. In Canada, since post-secondary education falls under provincial, rather than national, jurisdiction, each province uses its own quality assurance processes to ensure the legitimacy of institutions. For a complete explanation, readers are referred to Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Canada, an excellent document maintained by the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC). This fact sheet provides an “overview of Canada’s postsecondary institutions and the types of quality assurance mechanisms that are in place.” Additional resources and links are provided, including detailed information on British Columbia Quality Assurance Practices.
Many programs in British Columbia institutions have been accredited by professional accrediting or licensing associations.
In BC, the formal application of the term “accredited” to institutions as a whole is limited to those private institutions that have successfully undergone the voluntary certification process of the Private Training Institutions Branch (PTIB) of the BC Ministry of Advanced Education which administers the Private Training Act and associated regulations. This process is required to establish eligibility to participate in provincial and federal student financial assistance programs. It does not imply or guarantee that courses or programs taken at these institutions will be recognized for transfer credit at any of the public post-secondary institutions. Note: These processes were formerly overseen by the Private Career and Training Institutions Authority (PCTIA) which was dissolved in 2014.
Retrieved from http://www.bccat.ca/system/accreditation
Health care professionals in Canada are expected to abide by their association standards, i.e. Canadian Nurses Association (CNA), or their health care licence could be revoked. Also, there are evaluations that are conducted in the work place which include evaluation of the health care professional; for example working in the residential health care sector. The quality assurance systems in place are to evaluate all aspects, including the health care workers, and associated health care professionals to provide continuity of quality care and services for the seniors living at the residential care facility. The three quality assurance systems that evaluate residential care facilities are;
We are an independent, nonprofit organization focused on advancing the quality of services you use to meet your needs for the best possible outcomes.
CARF provides accreditation services worldwide at the request of health and human service providers. Whether you are seeking rehabilitation for a disability, treatment for addiction and substance abuse, home and community services, retirement living, or other health and human services, you can have confidence in your choice. Providers that meet our standards have demonstrated their commitment to being among the best available.
Retrieved from http://www.carf.org/home/
We work to bring the best of health care from around the world home, and vice versa. We work closely with health and social services organizations in Canada and abroad to develop a sustainable culture of improvement that betters safety and efficiency, working to save and improve lives. From the standards we use to the frontline assessments we conduct and everything in between, patients and families are full partners in what we do.
More than 1,000 health and social service organizations and 7,000 sites in Canada and around the world have been accredited through our programs and services, leading to safer, quality health care for those who matter most; patients and their families.
Retrieved from https://accreditation.ca/about/
Protecting the health, safety and well-being of residents is our priority. We conduct a variety of inspections, including annual routine inspections to ensure that facilities comply with regulatory requirements.
As part of every routine inspection a Facility Risk Assessment Tool is completed which rates a facility either low, moderate or high risk. For more information about inspection categories or Risk Assessment go the Database Coding Guide and the Risk Assessment bulletin listed below.
The quality assurance organizations that conduct the evaluation have categories that are evaluated, for example for Fraser Health Authority (FHA) the listed categories evaluated for residential care are;
FHA inspect facilities based on the following categories:
When the residential care facilities are evaluated they are provided written feedback. If any observed violations occur they are given a written notice and a timeline to correct the violations.
Here are is an example an inspection evaluation, including the observed violation.
|An unscheduled routine inspection was conducted to assess compliance with the Community Care & Assisted Living Act (CCALA), the Residential Care Regulation (RCR) and the relevant Director of Licensing Standards of Practice (DOLSP). Evidence for this report was based on the Licensing Officer’s observations, review of the facility records and information provided by the facility staff at the time of inspection.The following areas were reviewed:
· Physical Facility
· Polices & Procedures
· Care & Supervision
· Hygiene and Communicable Disease Control
· Nutrition and Food Services
· Records and ReportingAs part of the routine inspection a Facility Risk Assessment Tool is completed and a copy is provided. The Risk Assessment includes non-compliance identified during the routine inspection and a 3 year “historical” review of the facility’s compliance and operation.
Visit the CCFL website at http://www.fraserhealth.ca/residentialcare for:
|Current Inspection||Items reviewed comply with the Act, regulations & standards of practice except for those noted on supplementary pages.|
|PHYSICAL FACILITY, EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS: 31300 – RCR s.22(1)(c) – A licensee must ensure that all rooms and common areas are (c) maintained in a safe and clean condition.
Observation: 1 of 4 hallways had a table tray and walkers stored in the hallway. It was clarified there is storage areas for these items when not in use.
In addition, in 1 of 4 bedrooms, a person in care’s personal clothes were observed on the floor of the closet next to their shoes.
Corrective Action(s): Ensure all rooms and common areas are maintained in a safe and clean condition and clear from clutter.
Date to be Corrected: November 24, 2017PHYSICAL FACILITY, EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS: 31430 – RCR s.26(1) – A licensee must ensure that each bedroom meets the needs and provides for the health, safety and dignity of the occupant.
Observation: For one person in care, the privacy screening into their personal bathroom is not adequate to ensure the person’s privacy.
Corrective Action(s): Ensure appropriate provisions have been made to meet the person in care’s privacy needs in a dignified manner.
Date to be Corrected: November 24, 2017STAFFING: 32310 – RCR s.51(3) – A licensee must ensure that each employee is trained in the implementation of the plans described in subsection (1), including in the use of any equipment noted in the plan.
Observation: Upon review of emergency plan, drills and equipment, there lacks a semi-annual review of emergency and disaster plan by all staff as required in the Emergency Plan
Corrective Action(s): Ensure each staff is trained in the implementation of the Emergency plans
Date to be Corrected: November 24, 2017
STAFFING: 32320 – RCR s.68(4) – A licensee must ensure that all employees comply with the policies and procedures of the medication safety and advisory committee.
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES: 33280 – RCR s.85(1)(d) – A licensee must do all of the following: (d) ensure that policies are implemented by employees.
|Licensing would like to acknowledge:
– Renovations at the facility are complete as were submitted to licensing. Copies of Floor plans are to be submitted to licensing once updated. Emergency plans have been updated to reflect changes made.
– There is an Exemption to RCR s. 30(a) in place for 1 of 3 persons in care in the original request.
– It is recommended that it is documented for persons in care in the lower level who choose not to use the lower floor bathing room. This will assist in reviewing preference and ensure areas are not used due to staff choice or convenience.
|Action Required by Licensee/Manager||Action Required by Licensing Staff|
|Take corrective action to bring facility into compliance, Provide a written response to Licensing||No action required|
Nov 24, 2017
“The problem is that students may well experience such interventions as annoying increases in pressure that only serve to create anxiety and inhibit learning even more.” (Brookfield, 2015)
To my understanding, when someone is under pressure they have difficulties focusing. I am sure at some point we have heard this said in similar context. We may have even felt and spoken about similar feelings about being pressured and not feeling good about the pressure. What intrigued me about this quote is that even though we know there is truth behind this quote, as well there are psychology theories and science to prove that pressure tactics increase areas of the brain to shut off. There is physical evidence in the brain that display stress.
Last year I attended a networking event for entrepreneurs. There were a few key speakers, but one key speaker stood out to me the most. Neil Pasrich – author of Book of Awesome, based on his 50-million hit an award-winning blog, and The Happiness Equation, an accessible research-based guide to developing happiness. Retrieved from https://allianceconference.ca/speakersinfo
Neil Pasrich spoke about stress, and how if affects the brain, then further how that reaction can alter our mood and decrease our ability to be happy. A few weeks prior to this event I watched a YouTube video on “flow state” mixed martial arts techniques by MindSmash – the video is a motivational video on how a fighter can stay confident, calm, stay in the moment which helps to stay focused under pressure – this is called the flow state – an optimum state of mind. This theory has been reiterated by my MMA Sensei, confirming stress affects the brain.
How does stress affect the brain?
When a person is under stress the Pre-Frontal Lobe or Pre-Frontal Cortex – which helps with planning complex cognitive behaviors is affected. As well, the Frontal Lobe handles decision making, complex actions and thoughts, cognitive memory and filtering reactions. (John Lieurance, 2011). When under stress the Frontal Lobe disconnects therefore can result in anxiety and poor decision making.
The review in the Scientific American suggests when under great stress the brain can accidentally flick from its higher cognitive functions to primal reactions as it assumes we need to react instinctively to save ourselves.
The evidence provided in my reflective writing supports that the learner’s brain is affected under pressure, which can cause stress and anxiety, including bad decision making and the ability to focus. Providing a safe and positive environment for the learner to process information, and creating a positive learning journey for the learner is my responsibility as an educator to implement. As well, recognizing what the learners is capable off, and knowing how to define what is a challenge versus putting the pressure on.
As Brookfield explained “Many times students reach a certain point in learning that has taken a lot of energy and determination. A that moment there is a real need for them to regroup before moving on.” As an educator in my professional practice the following strategies I would implement;
Overall, it is much more rewarding to know that the learner’s journey is a pleasant one, and creating positive learning outcomes would motivate learner to continue learning.
Bates, c. (2012, April 11). How-stress-shut-command-centre-brain. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2127686/How-stress-shut-command-centre-brain.html
How to Enter the Flow Zone State. (n.d.). Retrieved from YouTube: https://youtu.be/RYUhJ9N699c
Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The Skillful Teacher. In S. D. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher (pp. 1-26). San Fransico: Jossey-Bass.
John Lieurance, D. (2011, November 16). the-frontal-and-pre-frontal-cortex-stress-and-brain-health-what-is-one-to-do. Retrieved from http://functionalcranialrelease.com: http://functionalcranialrelease.com/2011/11/the-frontal-and-pre-frontal-cortex-stress-and-brain-health-what-is-one-to-do/
Most learners participate in learning processes by starting off enthusiastic and engaged if they chose to do the course. There are incidents where learners do not choose to take the course, and are resistance to learning. As well, the learners who are engaged may also become resistant to learning during the course for various reasons. As Brookfield wrote;
Resistance is a multilayered and complex phenomenon in which several factors intersect. (Brookfield, 2015)
Listed are reasons why a learner can become resistance to learning;
Further, from Brookfield’s PowerPoint Presentation “Getting Students to Participate” Retrieved from http://www.stephenbrookfield.com/workshop/
Students were asked – What stops you from participating in a class, professional development session or meeting?
Understanding that there are various reasons for resistance to learning is the start of peeling of the multilayered and complex phenomenon to be able to support the learning process. As an educator it would be in our nature to try to engage the learner to adapt to liking the concept of learning, however prior to delivering techniques and strategies, understanding who the adult learner is critical for the learner’s engagement.
Engaging Adult Learners
Brookfield, S. D. (2015). Understanding Students’ Resistance to Learning. In S. D. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher – On Techniques, Trust and Responsiveness in the Classroom (p.213-225). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Diverse groups are groups of individuals that are different from each other. From http://www.qcc.cuny.edu the definition of diversity is; differences in racial and ethnic, socioeconomic, geographic, and academic/professional backgrounds. People with different opinions, backgrounds (degrees and social experience), religious beliefs, political beliefs, sexual orientations, heritage, and life experience.
“Diversity” means more than just acknowledging and/or tolerating difference. Diversity is a set of conscious practices that involve:
Retrieved from http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/diversity/definition.html
Canada is a multicultural country in which immigrants are welcomed to settle and live in Canada. Racial diversity is apart of the Canadian culture, and Canada has no political view against the growth of diversity in our country. We are all in some form knowledgeable or educated about different cultures, and how to support the cultures in our society. This just didn’t happen; having political leadership with openness to providing resources, support, funding and education in this area has developed our Country has one of the most increased acceptance of racial diversity. Therefore, it is compassionate to formulate an understanding about learners of a diverse racial group.
Brookfield (1995), suggests understanding the diverse learner, he also suggest adapting teaching styles, deliver team teaching, apply best instructional techniques for the diverse racial groups and use the CIQ for feedback. The use of visual or oral communication supports the learning experience for the diverse racial group, as well as changing up the groups to either separate the diverse racial group or place them together.
Tips – Developing Cultural Competency for Teaching